To create a new hazel plant with good guarantees of engraftment, Nutalia has always relied on farmers having healthy and uniform plants equipped with a good root sytem, free from parasites and guaranteed from a varietal point of view, so as to provide certified and guaranteed material.
Although the hazel tree adapts well to any soil type, it is good to pay attention to the first phase of the hazel grove implantation and to the soil preparation since at this stage the whole production cycle could be compromised.
Before purchasing the product, at Nutalia we check the certifications and experience the quality of the lands.
The spotting of the soil and the suitability for starting the cultivation of hazelnuts begins with a physical / chemical analysis of the soil to evaluate its physical characteristics, such as the particle size (sand, silt and clay), the PH value, the nutritional aspects and the macro and micro elements value. After choosing the land, it is prepared for the planting of the seedlings. The preparation must be carried out when the soil is completely dry, better in summer (preferably July / August), by a plowing of 70-100 cm deep. After the break-in, superficial work is carried out to make the soil fine. At this point the soil is ready for the new hazelnut grove planting.
After finishing the preparation of the soil, the hazel grove tracing is carried out in relation to the distance of the plants from each other and between the rows. This procedure must be done in the autumn, preferably in the first ten days of November. After tracing, the holes, which can be made by hand or with special mechanical drills, with a diameter of about 45 cm and a depth of about 40 cm, are prepared to plant the seedling. A wooden cane is attached to the side of each seedling to make the plants grow straight, but also for signaling and support. Sometimes it is also necessary to insert some pollinators, in the measure of 5% -10%, in order to improve pollination and therefore the production capacity of the hazelnut grove.
One of the most important and necessary practices in the cultivation of the hazel is fertilization, both to obtain good quality productions and to make the soil fertile. Before manuring, it is essential to do a physical / chemical analysis of the soil to aknowledge its characteristics and the fertility degree. As long as the plant is in the first years of growth, fertilization takes place in spring, while when the plant is ready to blossom, the fertilizers, are administered in spring and autumn. In spring, nitrogen-based mineral fertilizers are preferred, while in autumn mixed organic ones. To avoid the removal of the fertilizer from the plant during rain and irrigation it is good idea to bury the fertilizer with special buries. Also important is the supply of microelements such as magnesium, boron and zinc and the distribution of manure or compost.
Since the hazel is sensitive to the water shortage, in recent years the installation of irrigation systems has spread. A rational use of irrigation starts from an exact identification of the hazel water requirements, meeting the real needs of the plant, avoiding unnecessary waste of water and ensuring productivity and the quality of the product. The water shortage cause a vegetative imbalance, the reduction of plant growth and also the formation of buds and flowers, inevitably reducing the production and the yield of the shelled. Initially they were used superficial drip irrigation systems, with highly uniform drip wings, while today underground sub-irrigation systems at a depth of 40 cm at the root level are spreading, allowing a reduction in consumption and greater uniformity in the distribution of the water and not creating obstacles to cultivation operations on the ground (processing, mechanical harvesting, etc.).
Pruning takes place during winter period, between the end of the leaves fall and the blossoming beginning. The removal of excess branches and of the dry and diseased parts of the plant allows greater penetration of the light inside of it and also a fair distribution of the sap in the branches. Since the hazel tree produces on branches that developed the previous year (those with a length of 15/20 cm) it is good to pay attention to this procedure, alternating in the cut short branches (5/6 cm long) to the productive ones. Pruning can take place both manually and with mechanical means, with particular discs mounted on adjustable bars. In recent years there have been many tests of mechanical pruning on the hazel, using different intervention strategy in order to evaluate the real advantages that this new pruning technique could bring. Basically, traditional manual pruning is replaced by mechanical pruning performed with particular discs mounted on adjustable bars. The pruning residues of the hazel, thanks to the high energy potential, have proved to be very interesting in their use as fuel. From here, various initiatives have been developed to promote the use of biomass deriving from tree pruning.